Medicare enrollees pay a monthly premium for “Part B,” which covers doctors’ visits, lab tests, surgeries and other costs, but higher-income retirees pay larger premiums for the same level of care.

“The base premium for 2015 is $104.90 a month but starts to go up for couples with income over $170,000 [$85,000 for single filers],” says Tim Steffen, Robert W. Baird's director of financial planning. “Once their income reaches $428,000, couples hit the maximum premium of $335.70 a month.”

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